SMALL IS (STILL) BEAUTIFUL: A SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH ON SMALL TOURISM FIRMS

Authors

  • Jovo Ateljević University of Stirling, Man & Org Department, Stirling

Keywords:

Small tourism firms, new trajectories, tourism development, sectoral spread, counter balance, multinational tourism sector.

Abstract

Small tourism firms are symbolic of new trajectories of tourism development. On one level they represent spatial and sectoral spread of tourism within society and economy and on another level they represent a developmental counter balance to the globalised concentrations of the multinational tourism sector. Research on small tourism firms is reflective of the sector itself in terms of its diversity and scope to the extent that specialised attention challenges opportunities for conceptual engagement. This paper responds to arguments calling for more coherent theoretical development of research by providing a synthesis of literature which conceals an implicit logic reminiscent of the subject itself.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

• Aldrich, H., & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networking. In D. L. Sexton & R. W. Willson (Eds.), The Art of Science of Entrepreneurship. Massachusetts: Ballinger.

• Andrew, R., Baum, T. & Morrison, A. (2001). The Lifestyle Economics of Small Tourism Businesses. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, Vol. 1(June), 16-25.

• Ang, J. S. (1991). Small business uniqueness and the theory of financial management. Small Business Finance, 1(1), 1-14.

• Ansoff, I. H. (1990). General management in turbulent environments. The Practicing Manager, II(1), 6-27.

• Ateljević, J. and Milne, S. (2003). ‘Researching Small Tourism Enterprises: Encountering Complexity in New Zealand’. Conference Proceedings: Urban Tourism –Mapping the Future, Glasgow 24-27th September. Greater Glasgow & Clyde Valley Tourist Board, the Scottish Hotel School University of Strathclyde.

• Ateljević, J. (2002). Small Tourism Firms: Owners, Environment and Management Practices in the Center Stage of New Zealand. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington: Wellington New Zealand.

• Atkinson, H., Berry, A., & Jarvis, R. (1995). Business Accounting for Hospitality and Tourism. London: Chapman and Ha.

• Bacon, N., Ackers, P., Story, J., & Coates, D. (1996). It's a small world: managing human resources in small business. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 82-100.

• Baker, M. J. (1992). Marketing strategy and Management. London: Macmillan.

• Bastakis, C., Buhalis, D. & Butler, R. (2004). The perception of small and medium sized tourism accommodation providers on the impacts of the tour operators' power in Eastern Mediterranean, Tourism Management, 25(2), 151-170.

• Baum, T., (1999). Human Resource Management in Tourism's Small Business Sector: Policy Dimension. In D. Lee-Ross (Ed.), HRM in Tourism and Hospitality: International Perspectives on Small to Medium-sized Enterprises (pp. 3-16). London: Cassell.

• Bywater, M., (2001). Travel Distribution: Who owns whom in the European travel and distribution industry. On D. Buhalis & E. Laws, (eds.), Tourism Distribution Channels, (pp 46-58), London: Community International Publishing Group.

• Binks, M. R., Ennew, C. T., & Reid, M. (1992). Small Businesses and their Banks: 1992, Forum of Private Business. Knutsworth: Cheshire.

• Boer, A. (1998). An assessment of small business failure. In R. Thomas (Ed.), The Management of Small Tourism & Hospitality Firms (pp. 39- 57). London: Casell.

• Buhalis, D. (1996). Enhancing the competitiveness of small and medium sized tourism enterprises at the destination level by using information technology. Electronic Markets, 6(1), 1-6.

• Buhalis, D. & Cooper, C., (1998). Competition or co-operation: Small and Medium sized Tourism Enterprises at the destination. Embracing and managing change in Tourism, 324-346.

• Buhalis, D. (2000). Tourism in Era of Information. In B. Faulkner, G. Moscardo & E. Laws (Eds.), Tourism in the 21st Century: lessons from experience (pp. 163-180): Continuum.

• Busby, G. &. Rendel, S. (2000). The transition from tourism on farms to farm tourism. Tourism Management, 21, 635-642.

• Busenitz, L. (1999). Entrepreneurial risk and strategic decision making: It’s a matter of perspective. The Journal of Applied Behaviour Science, 35: 325-340.

• Butkeviciene, J., Benavides, D., Tortora M., 2002. Services Performance in Developing Countries: Elements of the Assessment. NJTO Symposium On Assessment Of Trade In Services. UNCTAD.

• Burrows, R. & Curran, J., (1989). Sociological research on service sector small businesses: some conceptual consideration. Work, Employment and Society, 3(4), 527-39.

• Carter, S. & Jones-Evans, D. (2000). Introduction. In S. Carter & D. Jones-Evans (Eds.), Enterprise and Small Business: Principles, Practice, and Policy (pp. 3-6). Harlow: Pearson Education.

• Carson, D., Cromie, S., McGowan, P., & Hill, P. (1995). Marketing and Entrepreneurship in SMEs: An Innovative Approach. London: Prentice Hall International.

• Cameron, A. & Massey, C. (2002). Entrepreneurs at Work: Successful New Zealand Business Ventures. Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand

• Chell, E. & Pittaway, L. (1997). A study of entrepreneurship in the restaurant and cafe industry: eđploratory njork using the critical incident technique as a methodology. Hospitality Management, 17, 23-32.

• Cukier, J. (2002). Tourism Employment Issues in Developing Countries. In R. Sharpley, and D. Telfer, Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel View. Pp. 165-201.

• Curran, J., & Blackburn, R. (1994). Small Firms and Local Economic Networking: The Death of the Local economy? London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.

• Dahles, H & Bras, K. (eds.) 1999. Tourism and Small Entrepreneurs: Development, National policy and Entrepreneurial Culture: Indonesian Cases.

• Daly, M. (1991). The 1980s: a decade of growth in enterprise. Employment Gazette, March, 109-134.

• Davies, P. (1996). TLJA in Small Firms. Total Quality Management Magazine, 2, 251-252.

• Davidson III, NJ. N, & Dutia, D. (1991). Debt, Liquidity, and Profitability Problems in Small Firms. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Fall, 53- 64.

• Deegan, J., Donal & Dineen, D. A. (1997). Tourism Policy and Performance: The Irish eđperience. London: International Thomson Business Press.

• Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F., 1983. On the Line. New York: Semiotext(e).

• Dewhurst, P. & Horobin, H. (1998). Small business owners. In R. Thomas (Ed.), The Management of Small Tourism and Hospitality Firms. London: Cassell.

• Dicken, P., (1998). Global Shift, Transforming the World Economy. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

• Drucker, P., (1992). Managing for the Future. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

• Dolli, N., & Pinfold, S. (1997). Managing rural tourism businesses: financing, development and marketing issues. In S. Page & D. Getz (Eds.), The Business of Rural Tourism: International Perspectives (pp. 38-56). London: International Thomson Business Press.

• Edensor, T. (2000) Staging tourism: tourists as performers. Annals of Tourism Research. 27: 322-344.

• Emerick, R. E., & Emerick, C. A. (1994). Profiling American Bad and Breakfast Accommodations. Journal of Travel Research, 32(4), 20-25.

• Fitzsimons, P., O’Gorman, C. & Roche, F. (2001). How Entrepreneurial is Ireland? The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2001: The Irish Report. Dublin: Cahill Printers LTD.

• Fleischer, A. & Felsenstein, D. (2000). Support for Rural Tourism: Does it Make a Difference? Annals of Tourism Research, 27(4), 1007-1024.

• Frank, H., & Landstrom, H. (1997). Entrepreneurship of Small Businesses in Europe - economic background and academic infrastructure. In H. Landstrom & H. Frank & J. M. Veciana (Eds.), Entrepreneurship of Small Business Research in Europe (pp. 1-13). Hants, England: Ahgate Publishing Limited.

• Freeman, C., & Perez, C. (1988). Structural crisis and adjustment, business cycle and investment behaviour . In G. F. Dosi, C. Nelson, R. Silverberg, G.and Soete, L. (Ed.), Technical Change and Economic Theory. London: Pinter.

• Friel, M. (1998). Marketing. In R. Thomas (Ed.), The Management of Small Tourism & Hospitality Firms, (pp. 117-137). London: Cassell.

• Getz, D., & Carlsen, J. (2000). Characteristics and goals of family and owner - operated businesses in the rural tourism and hospitality sectors. Tourism Management, 21, 547- 560.

• Ghobadian, A. & Gallear, D.N. (1997). TLJM and organisation size. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 17(2), 121-163.

• Gomes-Cassers. (1994). Group Versus Group: How Alliances Networks Complete. Harvard Business Review, July-August, 62-74.

• Goss, D. (1988). Social harmony and the small firm: a reappraisal. Sociological Review, 36(1), 114-132.

• Hall, C.M. & Rusher, K., (2004). Risky Lifestyles? Entrepreneurial Characteristics of the New Zealand Bed and Breakfast Sector. In R. Thomas (Ed.), Small Firms in Tourism: International Perspectives. London: Elsevier, (83-98).

• Haahti, A. & Elbe, J. (2003). Identity Economy and Relationship Cultivation: Viewing Entrepreneurship and Experience Marketing from the Periphery. In A. Haahti (ed.) Proceedings: Entrepreneurship in Tourism and the Contexts of the Experience Economy Conference ETCEE II. Pp. 114-151.

• Holloway, J. C. (1985). The Business of Tourism (2nd Ed.). London: Pitman.

• Ioannides, D. & Debbage, K., (1998). The economic geography of the tourism industry: A supply side analysis, London: Routledge.

• Jennings, P. & Beaver, G. (1997). The Performance and Competitive Advantage of Small Firm: a Management Perspective. International Small Business Journal, 15(2), 63-75.

• Jones, M. & Coviello, N.E. (2002). Towards a unifying direction for international entrepreneurship research. Paper presented at 3rd McGill Biennale Conference. Toronto: McGill University.

• Juutilainen, A. (2002). Entrepreneurs Perceptions of Strategy and Success in Small Firms of the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. In Proceedings of International Conference: Small Firms in the Tourism and Hospitality Sectors, September, Leeds Metropolitan University: Leeds, UK

• Kao, R.NJ.Y., Kao, K.R. & Kao, R.R. (2002). A Philosophy and a Sensible Alternative: Entrepreneurism for the Market Economy. London: Imperial College Press.

• Kaufman, T. J., & Weaver, P. M. (1998). Marketing Efforts of Bed and Breakfast Operations: Do They Influence Success? Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 7(4), 61-78.

• Keasey, K., & Watson, R. (1994). The bank financing of small firms in the UK: issues and evidence. Small Business Economics, 6, 349-362.

• Klasik, A. & Heffner, K., Eds. (2001). Restructuring Heavy Industrial Regions: Some eđperience from Scotland and Upper Silesia. Poland: Wydawnictwo Academii Ekonomicznej im. Karola Adamieckiego Katonjica.

• Kirby, D.A. (2002). Entrepreneurship. London: McGranj Hill Education.

• Komppula, R. (2004). Success and growth in rural tourism microbusinesses in Finland: Financial or life style objectives? In R.Thomas, (Ed.) Small Firms in Tourism: International Perspective, pp 115-138, London: Elsevier.

• Laws, E. (1995). Tourist Destination Management: Issues, Analysis and Polices. London: Routledge.

• Lanier, P., & Berman, J. (1993). Bed and Breakfast Inns Come of Age. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 34(2), 14-23.

• Lee-Ross, D. & Ingold, T. (1994). Increasing Productivity in Small Hotels: Are Academic Proposals Realistic. International Journal Hospitality Management, 13(3), 201-207.

• Lynch, P. (1998). Female micro entrepreneurs in the host family sector: Key motivations and socio-economic variables. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 17, 319-342.

• McGrath, R.G. (1999). Falling forward: Real options reasoning and entrepreneurial failure, Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 13-30.

• Middleton, V. T. C. (1998). Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective. Oxford: Buttrewortyh-Heinemann.

• Mintzberg, H. (1994). Rethinking strategic planning, part I: pitfalls and fallacies. Long range Planning, 27(3), 12-21.

• Montanari, A., & Williams, A. M. (1995). European Tourism: Regions, Spaces and Restructuring. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

• Morgan, G. (1990). Emerging waves and challenges: the need for new competences and mindsets, and reading the environment. From: Reading the waves of change (pp. 1-26). California: Sage publication.

• Morgan, N., & Pritchard, A. (2000). Advertising in Tourism and Leisure. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

• Morrison, A. (2002). Hospitality research: a pause for reflection. International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 4: 161-169.

• Morrison, A. & Teixeira, R. (2002). Small hospitality firms: business Performance obstacles. In Proceedings of International Conference: Small Firms in the Tourism and Hospitality Sectors, Leeds: Leeds Metropolitan University.

• Mountinho, L. (1990). Strategies for Destination Development - The Role of Small Businesses. In B. Goodall & G. Ashworth (Eds.), Marketing Tourism Places (pp. 104-122). London.

• Mugler, J. (1997). Research into entrepreneurship and small business in Austria. In H. Landstrom, Frank, H. and Veciana, J.M. (Ed.), Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research in Europe, An ECSB Survey (pp. 14-25). Aldershot: Avebury.

• Muma, P., (2002). Small Business in the South Pacific: Problems, Constraints and Solutions. Suva: Zania Books.

• Nayak, A., & Greenfield, S. (1994). The use of Management Accounting Information for Managing Micro Businesses. In A. Hughes & D. J. Story (Eds.), Finance and the Small Firm (pp. 167-183). London: Routledge.

• O’Brien, K. (1998). The European business travel market, Travel and Tourism Annalist, 4: 37-54.

• OECD, (1999). Stimulating private enterprise in transition economies, Policy Brief, April, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

• O'Gorman, C. (2000). Strategy and the small firm. In S. Carter & D. Jones-Evans (Eds.), Enterprise and Small Business: Principles, Practice and Policy (pp. 283-299). Harlow: Financial Times, Prentice Hall.

• Oppermann, M. (1995). Holidays in the farm: a case study of German hosts and guests. Journal of Travel Research, 33, 57-61.

• Overton, J., & Scheyvens, R., 1999. Strategies for Sustainable Development: Experiences from the Pacific. London: Zed Books.

• Qalo, R., (1997). Small Business: A study of a Fijian family. Suva: Mucunabitu Education Trust.

• Painter, J. & Goodwin, M. (2000). Local governance after Fordism: a regulatiponist perspective. In G. Stoker (Ed.), The new politics of British local governance, (pp. 33-53). Basingstoke: Macmillan

• Page, S. J., & Getz, D. (1997). The Business of Rural Tourism: International Perspective. London: International Thomson Business Press.

• Pearce, D. G. (2001). Tourism, trams and local government policymaking in Christchurch, New Zealand. Currant Issues in Tourism, 4(2- 4), 331-354.

• Pearce, P. L., Morrison, A. M., & Rutledge, J. L. (1998). Tourism: Bridges across continents. Sydney: The McGraw-Hill.

• Piore, M., & Sable, C. (1984). The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Property. New York: Basic Books.

• Piso, A., Thomas, R., Uwamungu, B., & Johbson, C. (2002). Informal employment in small firms: A comparative study of the tourism sectors in Switzerland and the UK. International Conference: Small Firms in the Tourism and Hospitality Sectors. Leeds (September).

• Robbins, S. P., Bergman, R., Stagg, I., & Coulter, M. (2000). Management. Sidney: Prentice Hall Australia Pty Ltd.

• Rosa, P., Carter, S. & Hamilton, D. (1996). Gender as a determinant of small business performance: Insights from a British study. Small Business Economics, 8:463-478.

• Ruisi, M. & Faldetta, G., (2002). The development of small tourism businesses in front of globalisation: conditions and preconditions, In Proceedings of International Conference: Small Firms in the Tourism and Hospitality Sectors, September, Leeds Metropolitan University: Leeds, UK

• Rusher, K. and Hall, M. (2003). Risky Lifestyle?: Entrepreneurial characteristics of the New Zealand bed and breakfast sector. Conference Proceedings: Urban Tourism –Mapping the Future, Glasgow 24-27th September. Greater Glasgow & Clyde Valley Tourist Board, the Scottish Hotel School University of Strathclyde.

• Russel, R., & Faulkner, B. (1999). Movers and Shakers: chaos makers in tourism development. Tourism Management, 20, 411-423.

• Scase, R. (2000). The enterprise culture: the socio-economic context of small firms. In S. Carter & D. Jones-Evans (Eds.), Enterprise and Small Business: Principles, Practice and Policy (pp. 32-47). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Ltd.

• Scott, K., Park, J. & Cocklin, C., (2000). From ‘sustainable rural communities’ to social sustainability: giving voice to diversity in Mangakahia, New Zealand, Journal of Rural Studies, 16(4): 433-446.

• Sharpley, R., & Telfer, D., 2002. Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel Vienj.

• Scheyvens, R., (2002). Tourism for Development: Empowering Communities. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

• Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful; economics as if people mattered. New York: Harper & Row.

• Sitkin, S.B. (1992) Learning through failure: The strategy of small losses. In B.M. Shaw & L.L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organisational Behaviour, 14, 231-266.

• Sengenberger, NJ. & Pyke, F. (1992). Industrial districts and local economic regeneration. Research and policy issues. In F. Pyke and NJ. Sengenberger (Eds.), Industrial districts and local economic regeneration, pp. 3-30. Geneva: International Institute of Labour Studies

• Sharpley, R., & Telfer, D., (2002). Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel View.

• Shaw, G., (2004). Entrepreneurial Cultures and Small Business Enterprises in Tourism. In A. Lenj, M. Hall, and A. Williams (eds.), A Companion to Tourism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

• Smallbone, D. (1990). Success and failure in new business starts ups . International Small Business Journal, 8(2), 34-47.

• Smeral, E., (1998). The impact of globalisation on small and medium enterprises: new challenges for tourism polices in European countries. Tourism Management, 19, 371-380.

• Stanworth, J., & Gray, C. (1991). Bolton 20 Years On. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

• Stokes, D. (2000). Marketing and the small firms. In S. Crater & D. Jones-Evans (Eds.), Enterprise and Small Businesses: Principles, Practice and Policy (pp. 354-366). Harlow: Pearson Education.

• Storey, D. J. (1994). Understanding the Small Business Sector. London: Routledge.

• Stubbart, C. (1982). Are environmental scanning units effective? Long Range Planning, June(139-145).

• Taylor, S., Simpson, J., & Howie, H. (1998). Financing small businesses. In R. Thomas (Ed.), The management of small tourism &hospitality firms (pp. 58-77). London: Cassell.

• Telfer, D., (2002). Tourism and Regional Development Issues. In R. Sharpley, and D. Telfer, Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel View. Pp. 112-164.

• Thomas, R., (2004). International Perspectives on Small Firms In Tourism: A Synthesis. In R. Thomas (Ed.), Small Firms in Tourism: International Perspectives. London: Elsevier, (1-12).

• Thong, J. Y. L., Yap, C. S., & Raman, K. S. (1996). The management support, external expertise and information systems implementation in small businesses. Information System Research, 7(2), 248-267.

• Urry, J. (1990). The Tourism Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage Publication.

• Yusof, S.M. & Aspinwall, E. (2000). Total quality management implementation frameworks: comparison and review. Total Quality Management, 11(3), 281-297.

• Van Hove, K., & Solignac Lacomte, H. B., 1999. Aid for Trade Development: Lessons for Lome V. ECDPM Discussion Paper 10. Maastricht: ECDPM.

• Wanhill, S. (2000). Small and medium tourism enterprises. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(1):132-147.

• Watson, J. & Everett, J. (1993) Defining small business failure, International Small Business Journal, 11(3), 35-48.

• Williams, A. M., (2000, May). Old wine in new bottle. Paper presented at the Tourism seminar, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, NZ.

• NJTO (2004). NJTO World Tourism Barometers, Madrid: World Tourism Organisation. Volume 2, Number 3. Retrieved on 16/03/04 from the web site: http://njnjnj.njorldtourism.org/nenjsroom/Releases/2004/november/arrivals.htm

Downloads

Published

2005-09-30

How to Cite

Ateljević, J. (2005). SMALL IS (STILL) BEAUTIFUL: A SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH ON SMALL TOURISM FIRMS. Acta Economica, 3(3), 69–97. Retrieved from http://ae.ef.unibl.org/index.php/AE/article/view/298

Issue

Section

Review article