• Mercy T. Musakwa Department of Economics, University of South Africa, UNISA, Pretoria, South Africa
  • Nicholas M. Odhiambo Department of Economics, University of South Africa, UNISA, Pretoria, South Africa
  • Sheilla Nyasha Department of Economics, University of South Africa, UNISA, Pretoria, South Africa



financial development, market-based financial development, bank-based financial development, Kenya, tourism, ARDL approach


Objective: In this study, we investigate the impact of tourism on financial development in Kenya using time series data from 1995 to 2017. The study uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound testing approach to cointegration and error correction model to examine this connection. To increase the robustness of the results, the study uses two proxies of financial development, namely broad money (bank-based financial development proxy) and total value of stocks traded (market-based financial development proxy). Results show that tourism has an insignificant impact on financial development in Kenya – both in the short run and in the long run. The results are relevant regardless of whether the financial development is proxied by a bank-based financial development indicator or by a market-based financial development indicator. This finding points to the fact that, although tourism is one of the main sources of foreign exchange in Kenya, it has no direct impact on financial development. The findings from this study add value to policy makers in Kenya by revealing the insignificant impact that tourism has on financial development, although this is in contrast to other studies that found a positive contribution. Based on the findings, Kenya may not anchor its financial development policies on tourism.


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How to Cite

T. Musakwa, M., M. Odhiambo, N., & Nyasha, S. (2022). DOES TOURISM INFLUENCE FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN KENYA? . Acta Economica, 20(36), 155–173.



Review article